Who’s Who ‘T’

Tallis, Thomas Composer church musician and organist, d1585. The Father of English Cathedral music. A gentleman of the Royal Chapel. He enjoyed with William Byrd a monopoly of music printing from Elizabeth 1 for 21 years. He wrote anthems, some hymn tunes and his “Responses”. His polyphonic composition marked a transition from plainchant to singing in parts with melody and simplicity. His setting of Psalm 67 in the form of a doxology called Tallis’s Canon is his best known and loved piece. He is often remembered with William Byrd and John Merbecke.

Tawney R.H.  Academic, Author and Christian Socialist 1880-1962.  He gave socialist and Christian answers to the great questions of the post WWI era which veered either into Communism or Fascism.  The son of a Sanskrit scholar, Charles Tawney, he was educated at Rugby School and Balliol Oxford. The college’s strong ethic of social service combined with his own profound faith lay at the root of his thought. He was a contemporary at Rugby and Balliol of William Temple. A close friend of William Beveridge, they lived together at Toynbee Hall. Served with the Manchester Regiment in WWI, as a sergeant was wounded twice in the Somme and left in no man’s land for 30 hrs.  During this period reflected on the power of original sin and the need for beneficial institutions to restrain the effects of evil. An Historian of the 17th Century, he charted the appearance of Protestantism and the rise of Capitalism leading to one of his famous books “Religion and the Rise of Capitalism” (1926). A fellow of Balliol College, he went to hold the Chair of Economic History at the LSE from 1931-49, guiding the government in the thinking behind the Welfare State and Health Care.  Other publications included The Acquisitive Society (1920) and Secondary Education for All (1922). One of the foremost political thinkers and social reformers of the 20th Century.

Temple William, Archbishop of Canterbury, Scholar and Social Reformer 1881-1944. Educated at Rugby School and Balliol College, Oxford where he got a Double First in Classics and was President of the Oxford Union. His father -59 years older than him- was Bishop of Exeter and Archbishop of Canterbury (1897-1902) was the chief inspiration in his life.  Became Fellow of Queens, lectured on Philosophy. Despite hesitations over a literal interpretation of the Virgin birth and bodily resurrection, he was ordained deacon by the Archbishop Randall Davidson in 1908 then Headmaster of Repton from 1910. He then became Rector of St James Piccadilly, Geoffrey Fisher succeeding him at Repton. Temple was successively a Canon of Westminster Abbey and then at 39 Bishop of Manchester in 1921. He sought greater freedom from the state for the church, identified with the Labour party and the needs of the working class.  He sought reconciliation between the pit owners and miners in the General Strike. 1929-1942 He was Archbishop of York. While Archbishop he wrote   Nature, Man and God(1934), Readings in St John’s Gospel (1939&40) and Christianity and the Social Order (1942). He chaired several important conferences about the church and the social order, giving a prophetic edge to the church’s relationship with the poor. He was an important support to R.A. Butler in the formation of the 1944 Butler Education Act. He died only two years into his archiepiscopacy at Canterbury in 1944 and was succeeded again by Geoffery Fisher.

Theodore of Tarsus St Archbishop of Canterbury c602-90 Amazingly aged 66 he was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury by Pope Vitalian in Rome. Previously he had become a Monk and trained at Antioch. Renowned for his learning he was appointed Archbishop. On arrival in England he conducted a survey of the church, called two councils at Hertford (673) and Hatfield (680) standardising belief and practise. He established a school at Canterbury for training clergy teaching Greek and Latin. He began the process of establishing parish ministry and creating new dioceses. He was opposed by Wilfrid when he sought to divide the Northumbrian Diocese based a York. He died aged 88 in post.  Feast Day Sept. 19

Tolkien J.R.R. Academic and Author 1892-1973 His father came from German roots but Tolkien was brought up in South Africa, but his father died when he was three. Tolkien was then brought up with his mother’s family in Birmingham. His mother became a Catholic shocking her Baptist family but died when Tolkien was eleven from Diabetes.  Educated at King Edwards Birmingham and St Philip’s Grammar Hagley. Fr Francis Xavier Morgan at the Oratory and Pre Raphaelite art were both influential.  Formed a secret tea-drinking club at school, travelled to Switzerland in 1911-the scenery deeply impressed him , fell in love with his future wife Edith Bratt when 16, went to Oxford Exeter College in 1912 -gained first class honours , went to the trenches in WWI in 1915 leaving his wife “ it felt like death” and was on the Somme in 1916 . He was sent home with trench fever carried by lice. Discharged in 1920 he began his academic career and began writing. In 1925 he was made Professor of Anglo Saxon at Oxford and fellow of Pembroke College. He deeply influenced C. S. Lewis. He wrote The Hobbit and first 2 Vols. of Lord of the Rings.  He translated Beowulf not published until 2014 by his son. He later became a Fellow of Merton from 1954 becoming the Merton Professor of English.  He retained a love of traditional Roman Catholicism, the Latin Liturgy, the English countryside (the Shire), a simple lifestyle (cycling) and an utter devotion to Edith and his family of four children and their issue. His Christian faith, his experience of great armies at war, his fellowship at school, his love of saga and words and his sense of the great struggle in life all contrived to give us the Hobbit, Lord of the Rings and Silmarillion.        

Tyndale, William Bible Translator and Scholar (c 1494-1536). Educated in Oxford and then Cambridge. Conceived of the project to translate the Bible into English whilst working at Little Sodbury in Glos. as a tutor. Refused help by the English hierarchy, he emigrated to Germany in 1523 – never to return. In 1525 Translated and published in Germany the New Testament. Copies were smuggled into England and supressed.  Continued to translate from Hebrew the OT eg The Pentateuch and some of the prophets. Renowned for simple, vigorous and memorable English.  Betrayed, arrested and tried at Vilvorde near Brussels. Executed and burnt 1536. 60% of the AV his work.